Pedro Roncero-Sánchez · Alfonso Parreño Torres · Javier Vázquez
In the last few decades, renewable energy sources (RESs) have been integrated into the electrical grid in order to curb the deficiency of energy owing to, among other factors, the depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing awareness of climate change. However, the stochastic nature of these sources, along with changes in levels of energy consumption, signifies that attention now needs to be paid for energy storage systems (ESSs). One of the most promising RESs is concentration photovoltaic (CPV) energy, owing to the high efficiency obtained and its sustainability regarding environmental issues. However, as CPV systems work only with direct solar radiation, they require ESSs in order to smooth the variations in the energy generated. This paper deals with the integration into the grid of a CPV plant that employs a hybrid ESS (HESS) based on ultracapacitors and batteries. The HESS allows the complete system to inject a constant active power level into the grid and thus flatten the profile of the energy generated. This goal is achieved by using a power electronic topology based on various DC–DC converters and a DC–AC converter, both of which share the same DC link. The control system is tailored in order to decouple the active-power and the reactive-power injections. Simulation results obtained using PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transient Direct Current) show the resulting performance of a 200 kW CPV plant with a hybrid ESS.

1st degree connections


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3rd degree connections


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4th degree connections


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3rd degree connections


Low Power Design for Future Wearable and Implantable Devices
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With the fast progress in miniaturization of sensors and advances in micromachinery systems, a gate has been opened to the researchers to develop extremely small wearable/implantable microsystems for different applications. However, these devices are...

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