Claire H. Luby · Irwin L. Goldman
Sustainability 2016;8:479

Environmental effects of industries and plants | Environmental sciences | Renewable energy sources

The intellectual property rights (IPR) landscape for plant germplasm has changed dramatically over the past 50 years, moving from the public domain into proprietary structures. Using carrot as a model crop, we explored the freedom to operate for plant breeding and research in relation to the diversity present in 140 commercially available cultivars in the United States. To determine freedom to operate, we characterized the phenotypic and genotypic diversity across cultivars and the IPR that were associated with each cultivar. With 87 of the 95 cultivars that were not restricted by IPR, we developed eight diverse composite populations of carrot through two cycles of breeding that are meant to encompass the available diversity in commercial germplasm. These populations are being released through the Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI, This is the first example of crop germplasm that has been collected, characterized, and bred specifically for entry into an open source commons.


4th degree connections

Criteria for Copyrightability in Russian Copyright Doctrine and Judicial Practice
Russian Law Journal 2016 (

This article analyzes the current state of the debate on the minimum level of creativity needed for works to be copyrightable, including dominant principles in Russian jurisprudence and judicial practice, principal trends and contradictions that a...

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