Kholis Roisah
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agree-ment interesting to be understood in the perspective of hard law and soft law. TRIPs Agreement justified as hard or soft law by identifying the norms in the TRIPs agreement. Parameter obligation of TRIPs agreement visible implementation and enforcement of agreement norm with full compliance to fourth of the IPR Convention for the State parties is an indicator of unconditional obligation. Parameters precision TRIPS agreement showed formulation of general obligation setting up the implementation of treaty obligations is regulated in detail and the use of ”shall” term in any norm, describe the imperative norm character and shown indicator as substantial limited of interpretation with the parties might not interpreted. Parameter delegation looked explicitly provision of implementation and enforcement agreement that put an obligation on national authorities of state parties through domestic law and its courts. Parameter obligation, precision as well as delegation showed as high indicator that the TRIPs agreement characterized as hard law.


2nd degree connections

BRICS Law Journal 2016 (

The article focuses on the impact of the TRIPS Agreement provisions on further development of international technology transfer (ITT) mainly to developing countries. The authors review the critical specificity of ITT connected with the adoption of...

3rd degree connections

Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience
British Journal of American Legal Studies 2016 (
This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S.) arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agree...

4th degree connections

Copyright, Culture, and Community in Virtual Worlds
Laws 2016 (
Communities that interact on-line through computer games and other virtual worlds are mediated by the audiovisual content of the game interface. Much of this content is subject to copyright law, which confers on the copyright owner the legal right to...

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Revista de Direito Sanitário 2017 (
We have just received the news that the Revista de Direito Sanitário/Journal of Health Law has been incorporated into Scopus, which serves as a great base for bib-liometric evaluation of scientific journals. We are very happy with this recognition by...

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The Borders of EU Competences with Regard to the International Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights: Constructing a Dam to Resist a River Bursting Its Banks
Utrecht Journal of International and European Law 2016 (
In view of the recent negotiations on the highly anticipated Free Trade Agreements to which the EU shall be party ('e.g.' CETA and TTIP), assessing the extent to which the EU can regulate intellectual property rights in its external relations seems r...

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