Kawalec M. · Kluczowski R. · Krauz M.
Fuel cells are devices converting the chemical energy into the electrical energy and heat as result of the electrochemical reaction between gaseous fuel and a gas oxidant in flameless combustion process. Because of omission of thermo-mechanical steps that are present in any traditional energy conversion technology (e.g. gas turbine) fuel cells show increased efficiency in comparison. Compact sizes and modular scalability predestines this technology for distributed energy generation including but not limited to renewable energy sources (e.g. wind, solar). Fuel cells technology also addresses other very important part of distributed renewable energy generation. Because of the unreliable energy production rates and the usual for renewable energy sources mismatch between energy supply and demand, some sort of energy storage is needed to store surplus of produced energy and release it when needed. Reversible fuel cells, that generate hydrogen from available surplus of energy and then generate energy from that stored fuel when needed are cheaper and more ecologically friendly alternative to usually used batteries. This technology is still under development, including research at IEn OC CEREL. In the early development of reversible fuel cells, new types of nickel oxide and porosity forming carbon was evaluated for this task. This work compares the electrical and mechanical parameters of SOFC manufactured with JT Backer NiO and Carbon Polska carbon with cells made from other commercially available materials. Based on evaluated quality, purity, availability and cost, following materials were selected for comparison: Novamet NiO, 99,9 % pure, grain size 1-2 µm and Aldrich carbon with parameters similar to graphite used previously. Preliminary tests show clear changes in the microstructural, mechanical and electrical parameters.

1st degree connections


Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review
Frontiers in Energy Research 2017 (https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2017.00010)
Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being ...

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Review of Sustainable Energy -- Without the Hot Air by David MacKay (2009)
Numeracy 2016 (https://doi.org/10.5038/1936-4660.9.2.9)
David MacKay. Sustainable Energy: Without the hot air. (Cambridge, England: UIT Cambridge Ltd., 2009). 384 pp. ISBN 978-0954452933 (also available as a free e-book). Physicist David MacKay transforms what has historically been a debate fraught wit...

1st degree connections


Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities
A+BE: Architecture and the Built Environment 2016 (https://doi.org/10.7480/abe.2016.5)
The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the pr...

3rd degree connections


Environmental Siting Framework for Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dodecanese Islands
Resources 2016 (https://doi.org/10.3390/resources5030024)
The increasing rate of energy consumption, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the environmental degradation caused has led to thorough research on Renewable Energy Sources (RES), which have been seen as a sustainable solution to climati...

1st degree connections


Status of Biomass Derived Carbon Materials for Supercapacitor Application
International Journal of Electrochemistry 2017 (https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6453420)
Environmental concerns and energy security uncertainties associated with fossil fuels have driven the world to shift to renewable energy sources. However, most renewable energy sources with exception of hydropower are intermittent in nature and thus ...

1st degree connections


Control Scheme of a Concentration Photovoltaic Plant with a Hybrid Energy Storage System Connected to the Grid
Energies 2018 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020301)
In the last few decades, renewable energy sources (RESs) have been integrated into the electrical grid in order to curb the deficiency of energy owing to, among other factors, the depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing awareness of climate chan...

Supporting Renewables’ Penetration in Remote Areas through the Transformation of Non-Powered Dams
Energies 2016 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121054)
Supplying power to remote areas may be a challenge, even for those communities already connected to the main grid. Power is often transmitted from long distances, under adverse weather conditions, and with aged equipment. As a rule, modernizing grid ...

Adaptive Procurement Guidelines for Automatic Selection of Renewable Forest Energy Sources within a Sustainable Energy Production System
Energies 2016 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030155)
An automatic forest-stand selection method was developed that integrates the procurement of profitable energy sources within a sustainable energy production system. We tested the method using a forest harvester simulator. We found that site-specific ...

ECONOMY "SMART BUILDINGS" HOUSING
Journal of Process Management. New Technologies 2017 (https://doi.org/10.5937/jouproman5-12730)
In terms of ensuring national security and the security of energy supply and energy sources, such as liquid fuels and gas, as well as energy independence from energy imports and energy, the focus of our strategy to shift towards renewable energy...

Economic and Environmental Study of Wineries Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Spain
Energies 2017 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020222)
This research developed a system that can make factories more independent from the grid. The system enhances efficiency since factory operation is powered by the renewable energy generated during the production process. Winemaking is a key sector tha...

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany
Energies 2017 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070957)
“Linking the power and transport sectors—Part 1” describes the general principle of “sector coupling” (SC), develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review...

Performance Indicators of Electricity Generation at Country Level—The Case of Italy
Energies 2018 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030650)
Power Grids face significant variability in their operation, especially where there are high proportions of non-programmable renewable energy sources constituting the electricity mix. An accurate and up-to-date knowledge of operational data is essent...

Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat
Energies 2018 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030575)
District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these s...

3rd degree connections


Financing Innovations for the Renewable Energy Transition in Europe
Energies 2016 (https://doi.org/10.3390/en9120990)
Renewable energy sources are vital to achieving Europe’s 2030 energy transition goals. Technological innovation, driven by public expenditures on research and development, is a major driver for this change. Thus, an extensive dataset on these expendi...

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Development of an operation strategy for hydrogen production using solar PV energy based on fluid dynamic aspects
Open Engineering 2017 (https://doi.org/10.1515/eng-2017-0020)
Alkaline water electrolysis powered by renewable energy sources is one of the most promising strategies for environmentally friendly hydrogen production. However, wind and solar energy sources are highly dependent on weather conditions. As a result, ...

Assessing Energy Efficiency of Compression Heat Pumps in Drying Processes when Zeotropic Hydrocarbon Mixtures are Used as Working Agents
MATEC Web of Conferences 2016 (https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20167302015)
Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of renewable energy.The paper proposes a design and a formula for assessing energy efficiency of the heat pump air dryer, which uses zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of saturated hydr...

Drying and dryer from the aspect of renewable energy and sustainable development
Tehnika 2017 (https://doi.org/10.5937/tehnika1701061T)
Sustainable development, energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection are the most pressing questions at the beginning of a new, 21st, century. The most important role of renewable energy in reducing greenhouse gases, increasing e...

0th degree connections


Exergetic Aspects of Hydrogen Energy Systems—The Case Study of a Fuel Cell Bus
Sustainability 2017 (https://doi.org/10.3390/su9020276)
Electrifying transportation is a promising approach to alleviate climate change issues arising from increased emissions. This study examines a system for the production of hydrogen using renewable energy sources as well as its use in buses. The elect...

1st degree connections


Green Energy for a Green City—A Multi-Perspective Model Approach
Sustainability 2016 (https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080702)
The basis for implementing demands for a green city is the use of, among other things, innovative “clean” technologies. However, it is mostly and directly connected to the increased use of electric energy. Green transport is an appropriate example of...

1st degree connections


Techno-economic analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind/battery/hydrogen systems for very small-scale applications
Thermal Science 2016 (https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI150308195S)
The paper presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of three stand-alone hybrid power systems based on renewable energy sources which supply a specific group of low-power consumers. This particular case includes measuring sen...

1st degree connections


Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 2016 (https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248)
Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG) units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar) based DGs ...

1st degree connections


The Economics of Renewable Energy Sources into Electricity Generation in Tanzania
Journal of Energy 2016 (https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5837154)
The study analyzes the economics of renewable energy sources into electricity generation in Tanzania. Business as usual (BAU) scenario and renewable energy (RE) scenario which enforce a mandatory penetration of renewable energy sources shares into el...

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